Revolt Of 1857 Causes And Effects Pdf 114 ##VERIFIED##
The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Effects and Significance
The Revolt of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny or the First War of Independence, was a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in 1857â59. It began in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British East India Company, who refused to use new rifle cartridges that were thought to be greased with animal fat, which was religiously offensive to both Hindus and Muslims. The revolt soon spread to other regions, such as Delhi, Agra, Kanpur and Lucknow, where the sepoys were joined by local rulers, peasants and civilians who had various grievances against the British.
The revolt posed a serious challenge to the British supremacy in India and exposed their administrative and military weaknesses. It also revealed the deep resentment and discontent among the Indians towards the British policies and practices that threatened their religious, social, economic and political interests. The revolt was brutally suppressed by the British, who employed harsh measures such as mass executions, confiscation of property, destruction of villages and reprisals against suspected rebels. The revolt had significant consequences for both India and Britain. It marked the end of the rule of the East India Company and the beginning of direct rule by the British Crown, which introduced various reforms to appease and modernize the Indians. It also stimulated a sense of nationalism and unity among the Indians, who realized the need for organized resistance and cooperation against foreign domination.
The Revolt of 1857 was a landmark event in the history of India and Britain. It was a turning point that changed the course of their relationship and shaped their future destiny. It was also a remarkable example of courage, sacrifice and heroism displayed by the Indians who fought for their freedom and dignity against a powerful and oppressive colonial power.
Leaders and Places of the Revolt of 1857
The Revolt of 1857 involved various regions and leaders who fought against the British rule. Some of the prominent leaders and places of the revolt are as follows:
Mangal Pandey: He was a sepoy of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry who sparked off the revolt by attacking his British officers at Barrackpore on March 29, 1857. He was arrested and executed by the British.
Bahadur Shah II: He was the last Mughal emperor who was proclaimed as the leader of the revolt by the sepoys who reached Delhi on May 11, 1857. He was reluctant to join the revolt but later gave his support. He was captured and exiled by the British after the recapture of Delhi in September 1857.
Nana Sahib: He was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II who had been denied his pension and inheritance by the British under the doctrine of lapse. He led the revolt at Kanpur along with his associates Azimullah Khan, Tantia Tope and Rani Lakshmi Bai. He defeated the British at Kanpur and massacred many of them at Bibighar. He later escaped to Nepal after losing to the British forces.
Rani Lakshmi Bai: She was the widow of Gangadhar Rao, the ruler of Jhansi, who had also been deprived of her kingdom by the British under the doctrine of lapse. She joined the revolt and defended Jhansi against the British siege. She later allied with Tantia Tope and fought bravely at Kalpi and Gwalior. She died on June 17, 1858, while fighting against General Hugh Rose.
Begum Hazrat Mahal: She was the wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh, who had been deposed and exiled by the British in 1856. She led the revolt at Lucknow along with her son Birjis Qadr and other rebels. She resisted the British siege of Lucknow for several months but later retreated to Nepal.
Kunwar Singh: He was a zamindar of Jagdishpur in Bihar who joined the revolt at the age of 80. He fought against the British forces in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. He died on April 26, 1858, due to a wound sustained during a battle.
Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah: He was a Muslim cleric and a leader of Wahhabi movement who led the revolt at Faizabad in Awadh. He mobilized many peasants and sepoys against the British. He was killed in June 1858 while fighting near Ayodhya.
Khan Bahadur Khan: He was a relative of Rohilla chief Hafiz Rahmat Khan who led the revolt at Bareilly in Rohilkhand. He declared himself as a governor under Bahadur Shah II and fought against the British forces. He was captured and executed by the British in February 1860. aa16f39245